Id: 13


​Basics 3

The NOR/Absolutive case

  • This lesson continues introducing the main parts of the first case in Basque, the NOR/Absolutive case, which is used with the subject of intransitive verbs (verbs without objects) and the object of transitive verbs(verbs with objects), which will be discussed later.

Nor Case, Plural Definite

  • Plural definite

    • Ending: -ak
    • Example: EtxeAK (houses)
  • The plural definite form of Basque nouns is used give Basque nouns the equivalent of an English plural ending (s).

  • Izan sentences use the NOR case, so you would add "-ak" (mutil → mutilak) to plural nouns.
  • Note: If the word ends in an "a" in the Indefinite form, another is not added in the Plural Definite form.
  • Ex: Neska(girl, a girl, the girl): Neskak(girls)

Also, if the indefinite form of the word ends in an "r", for the Plural forms the "r" is normally, but not always, doubled. + Ex: Txakur - txakurrak, but paper - paperak (not paperrak).

Plural Pronouns and IZAN (to be)

Plural Pronouns

  • Gura (We)
  • Zuek (You(plural))
  • Haiek (They)

Izan (to be)

Izan declination

  • The forms of Izan are irregular, and need to be memorized.

    • Gu gara: We are
    • Zuek zarete: You (plural) are
    • Haiek dira: They are
  • Izan sentences use the NOR case mentioned above, so you would add "-ak" (mutil → mutilak) for plural definite nouns.

Vocabulary Basics 3

  • gu gara: we are
  • zuek zarete: you(plural) are
  • haiek dira: they are
  • eta: and
  • gizonak: men
  • emakumeak: women
  • mutilak: boys
  • neskak: girls
  • ikasleak: students
  • irakalseak: teachers

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gu gara,gara we are ['we1', 'we2', 'we3']
zuek zarete,zarete you all are,you(plural) are,you are ['you1', 'you2', 'you3']
haiek dira,dira they are ['they1', 'they2', 'they3']
eta and ['and1', 'and2', 'and3']
gizonak men,the men ['men1', 'men2', 'men3']
emakumeak women,the women ['women1', 'women2', 'women3']
mutilak boys,the boys ['boys1', 'boys2', 'boys3']
neskak girls,the girls ['girls1', 'girls2', 'girls3']
irakasleak teachers,the teachers ['teacher1', 'teacher2', 'teacher3']
ikasleak students,the students ['students1', 'students2', 'students3']


Epa. Gu Mikel eta Joseba gara.
Epa. Mikel eta Joseba gara.
Hi. We are Mikel and Joseba.
Gu gizonak gara.
Gizonak gara.
We are men.
Kaixo. Gu Miren eta Aintza gara.
Kaixo. Miren eta Aintza gara.
Hello. We are Miren and Aintza.
Gu emakumeak gara.
Emakumeak gara.
We are women.
Gu ikasleak gara.
Ikasleak gara.
We are students.
Zuek Aitor eta Jon zarete.
Aitor eta Jon zarete.
You are Aitor and Jon.
You all are Aitor and Jon.
Zuek mutilak zarete.
Mutilak zarete.
You are boys.
You all are boys.
Zuek irakasleak zarete.
Irakasleak zarete.
You are teachers.
You all are teachers.
Haiek Aitor eta Jon dira.
Aitor eta Jon dira.
They are Aitor and Jon.
Haiek ere mutilak dira.
Ere mutilak dira.
They are also boys.
Terese eta Karmele neskak dira.
Terese and Karmele are girls.
Terese eta Karmele ere ikasleak dira.
Terese and Karmele are also students.


Aitor ('Aitor (male name)',)
Aintza ('Aintza (female name)',)
Jon ('Jon (male name)',)
Joseba ('Joseba (male name)',)
Karmele ('Karmele (female name)',)
Mikel ('Mikel (male name)',)
Miren ('Miren (female name)',)
Terese ('Terese (female name)',)
also ('ere',)
all ('part of plural form of you',)
are ('gara', 'zarete', 'dira')
boys ('mutilak',)
girls ('neskak',)
hello ('kaixo',)
hi ('epa',)
men ('gizonak',)
students ('ikasleak',)
teachers ('irakasleak',)
they ('haiek',)
women ('emakumeak',)
you ('zu', 'zuek')
you all ('zuek',)
we ('gu',)
Aitor ('Aitor (male name)',)
Aintza ('Aintza (female name)',)
Jon ('Jon (male name)',)
Joseba ('Joseba (male name)',)
Karmele ('Karmele (female name)',)
Mikel ('Mikel (male name)',)
Miren ('Miren (female name)',)
Terese ('Terese (female name)',)
dira ('are',)
emakaumeak ('women',)
epa ('hi',)
ere ('also',)
gara ('are',)
gizonak ('men',)
gu ('we',)
haiek ('they',)
ikasleak ('students',)
irakasleak ('teachers',)
kaixo ('hello',)
mutilak ('boys',)
neskak ('girls',)
zarete ('are',)
zuek ('you all',)